Monday, December 28, 2015

K-nearest Neighbors (KNN) in Python


Neighbors-based classification is a type of instance-based learning or non-generalizing learning: it does not attempt to construct a general internal model, but simply stores instances of the training data. Classification is computed from a simple majority vote of the nearest neighbors of each point: a query point is assigned the data class which has the most representatives within the nearest neighbors of the point.


scikit-learn implements two different nearest neighbors classifiers: KNeighborsClassifier implements learning based on the k nearest neighbors of each query point, where k is an integer value specified by the user. RadiusNeighborsClassifier implements learning based on the number of neighbors within a fixed radius r of each training point, where r is a floating-point value specified by the user.

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from matplotlib.colors import ListedColormap
from sklearn import neighbors, datasets

n_neighbors = 15

# import some data to play with
iris = datasets.load_iris()
X =[:, :2]  # we only take the first two features.
y =

h = .02  # step size in the mesh

# Create color maps
cmap_light = ListedColormap(['#FFAAAA', '#AAFFAA', '#AAAAFF'])
cmap_bold = ListedColormap(['#FF0000', '#00FF00', '#0000FF'])

# we create an instance of Neighbours Classifier and fit the data.
clf = neighbors.KNeighborsClassifier(n_neighbors), y)

# Plot the decision boundary. For that, we will assign a color to each
# point in the mesh [x_min, m_max]x[y_min, y_max].
x_min, x_max = X[:, 0].min() - 1, X[:, 0].max() + 1
y_min, y_max = X[:, 1].min() - 1, X[:, 1].max() + 1
xx, yy = np.meshgrid(np.arange(x_min, x_max, h),
                     np.arange(y_min, y_max, h))
Z = clf.predict(np.c_[xx.ravel(), yy.ravel()])

# Put the result into a color plot
Z = Z.reshape(xx.shape)
plt.pcolormesh(xx, yy, Z, cmap=cmap_light)

# Plot also the training points
plt.scatter(X[:, 0], X[:, 1], c=y, cmap=cmap_bold)
plt.xlim(xx.min(), xx.max())
plt.ylim(yy.min(), yy.max())

Now let's see how RadiusNeighborsClassifier works. After playing a bit with hyperparameters, we'll achieve the following plot:

clf = neighbors.RadiusNeighborsClassifier(3.0, weights='distance')


Despite its simplicity, nearest neighbors has been successful in a large number of classification and regression problems, including handwritten digits or satellite image scenes. Being a non-parametric method, it is often successful in classification situations where the decision boundary is very irregular.